Although this book was not originally conceived as being about the role of dual-processing in cognition, it seems, however, to have emerged unbidden from the discussions of the various types of thinking in these chapters. There have been different labels attached to the kinds of thinking we engage in. William James in the 19th century distinguished between ‘associative’ or ‘empirical’ and ‘true’ reasoning with the latter involving more careful analysis. In terms of the evolution of thinking, Toates (2006) has referred to stimulus-based processing and higher-order processing, one being unconscious and automatic and the other under conscious control. Petty and Cacioppo (198) referred to peripheral and central processing routes. Various authors have referred to differences between fast, automatic, associative, evolutionarily old, intuitive, implicit, empirical, heuristic, processes, and slow, controlled, serial, evolutionarily recent, explicit, rational, analytical, ones. Evans (2008) and Evans and Stanovich (2013) have listed a number of attributes of Type 1 and Type 2 processes. While each type has a range of attributes associated with it, they do have a kind of family resemblance with each belonging to a different family. Altogether they present the wide variety of ways of thinking we all engage in.