The Tuberculosis Policy of 1948 and the ‘action programme’ of the postcolonial government a decade later not only brought forth a vigorous effort against the disease, but also transformed Singapore in various ways. Spanning the late-colonial and postcolonial years, tuberculosis control extended to the urban periphery and rural areas of the city-state. More than an expansion in numerical or spatial terms, the programme played a crucial role in the making of modern Singapore as a nation-state – as a minister of health put it, becoming ‘a laboratory of citizenship’ and transforming the people into citizens. The programme laid out the rules and norms for tuberculosis control within the framework of the nation-state. The curative aspect of the programme encompassed outpatient treatment for treatable cases, supported by an allowance scheme for the needy, and the work of outpatient dispensaries for people living in the outlying areas. The prevention of tuberculosis involved visits by almoners and nurses to the homes of patients and their contacts; mass X-ray screening of selected groups of people and the general population; and extensive public education. The citizenship-conferring role of tuberculosis control continued with the launch of the directly observed therapy short course (DOTS) in the Singapore Tuberculosis Elimination Programme in 1997.