This introduction summarises the major points made in each section of the book and discusses the policy implications of the data and analysis. The reader will quickly learn that I support progressive, but not punitive, taxation and a system of transfer payments to provide a safety net for the unfortunate who cannot earn their livelihoods through the market system. Much of my work has been devoted to the preparation of estimates of the degree of progressivity achieved in modern tax-transfer systems and to the development of methods of improving the structure of taxation and making transfer systems adequate and efficient.