Theories are developed by individuals and/or groups of thinkers in response to the kinds of problems and issues most important to themselves. These kinds of reactions are neither static nor objective: situations and subsequent reactions change over time while the subjective interests and biases of theorists are reflected in their work. Consequently, theorizing is a highly dynamic and contextual process, neither fixed nor detached from its societal context (Kinloch 1977). In this chapter, we explore the kinds of comparative approaches to intergroup relations, past and contemporary, available to the analyst. We shall also attempt to bring them together in the form of a preliminary synthesis. We begin by discussing approaches to intergroup relations developed by scientists and academics in the past.