In contrast to the institutional contradictions in the American mode of incorporation, the relationship between the welfare-state and nation state is highly synchronized in France. First, the French nation-state predominates over the welfare state at the national and the local level. Second, both institutions treat residents and clients (respectively) as members of national collectives. Conversely, the American welfare state treats clients as individuals, while the American nation-state treats residents as members of ethnic communities. This variation in state structures in France and the U.S. explains why international migrants' social networks conflict with the American mode of incorporation, but confront a social contract in France.