While conventional scholarship has portrayed the colonial era as "peaceful" (Toye 1968:48), in reality, rebellion stirred all the major ethnic groups in Laos at various points between 1893 and 1954. But such outbursts, or what E.J. Hobsbawm has termed "archaic social movements" (Hobsbawm 1965), were not limited to Laos, and in fact knew no boundaries locally.