According to Smith, constitutional government in Western Europe arose as the result of two different sets of historical forces. The first was the prolonged struggle to bring absolute monarchy under legal control; the second was to bring government under popular control. 1 The first gave rise to theories of constitutionalism and governments which stressed the concept of balance among the various policymaking institutions and were the result of the increasing power of the new urban bourgeoisie during the liberal era. The second set of historical forces gave rise to the demand for the complete representation of the entire people and as such can be seen as an effort to resolve the crisis of participation.