With few exceptions, immigration entails the emergence of an ethnically heterogeneous population. Such sociocultural diversity is, of course, an enduring legacy of immigration to the settler societies of the New World, where at a minimum Europeans confronted aboriginal/lndian populations, but it is not only a New World phenomenon. The same ethnic pluralism has become characteristic of the more established European states, where, by virtue of imperial obligations or demand for unskilled labor, sizable numbers of foreign nationals have acquired residence. In the latter half of the twentieth century, not many democracies have been left untouched by the cultural diversity brought on by immigration.