TRADITIONALLY, WESTERNIZATION or modernization is equated with the development of a pluralistic social structure and a widening scope for individual activity based on security of person and property. This view clearly has its roots in the experience of England (and to a lesser extent Holland) and its extensions beyond the seas, especially as it was interpreted by liberal historiography in the 19th century. Mutatis mutandis the experience was also shared, so it was believed, by France, though the Ancien Regime and Napoleon had assigned a greater role to the state. And it was hoped that the same pattern might hold true of Italy and the Germanies, though the results were disappointing in the short run. Not surprisingly, Russian liberal historiography, too, argued that Russia's "europeanization" (as it preferred to call the process of westernization or modernization) would lead to social pluralism and political liberalization. As this result failed to materialize, Russia's historical path was perceived as "unnatural" and outward forces were held responsible for impeding a "natural" course.