While the two nation theory captured the headlines, it was obvious from its inception that Pakistan was not one, but a land of many nations. 1 The ethnic and tribal groups that constituted the Pakistan nation were exclusive, distinctive congeries of proud people that gave their allegiance to familiar local leaders. Tradition and custom guided their behaviour and their integration into a modern polity, their identification with a political abstraction that transcended their immediate surroundings, required tact, patience and wisdom. Even assuming the latter, there was no guarantee of success. Without it, it was a foregone conclusion that parochial interests would intensify.