https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-u.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9780429292354/3abb420d-80da-4aed-a9cf-ae5c42b997f9/content/ifig0001.tif"/>In the Uffizi gallery in Florence hangs Raphael’s great portrait of Giuliano della Rovere, Pope Julius II. An old man sits in an ornate chair gazing downward in a mood of melancholy abstraction. His head is covered by a velvet cap. His fingers are decorated by five or six large rings. The white beard, furrowed cheeks and firm mouth, turned down at the corners, suggest age and spent passions. But nothing suggests the monstrous egomania—the furious will to dominate and the ruthless determination which made Julius II the greatest of Renaissance popes and the wonder of his time—which made men call him with a mixture of fear and admiration the Terrible Pope.