The mid-1940s saw a New Wave taking shape in Malayalam literature modelled on the works of French realists like Maupassant and Flaubert. The prime mover of this trend was ‘Kesari’ Balakrishna Pillai through his translations of French stories in his weekly Prabodhakan, followed by Kesari, both of which, though meant for protest against the misrule of the Maharajah’s Diwan, had space for literary topics. Kesari also held a weekly discussion group on ‘progressive’ literature. Thakazhi, the most known among Malayalam authors and a member of this group, wrote pieces with romantic-erotic content that shocked readers till then used to middle-class romantic tales filled with escapist material. He later wrote on Pulaya farmers, beggars, and ended with his mighty ‘Kayar’ (Coir). The other Five who led this New Wave are Kesavadev, Ponkunnam Varkey, Basheer, SK Pottekkat, and Kaaroor who gave a place to till-then neglected Chatthu, Pappu, Koaran, Maria, Tiruma, and Chiruta, along with Menons and Pillais.