the greatest thinker of the early phase of German Enlightenment was Leibniz (1646–1716). He was born in Leipzig of Lutheran parents, studied jurisprudence, philosophy and mathematics, and became a counsellor of princes, first for five years in the service of the Archbishop Johann Philipp von Schoenburg, Elector of Mainz, and then for forty years in that of successive Dukes of Hanover and Brunswick, who belonged to the same dynasty. Research and diplomatic missions induced him to make many journeys, especially to Paris, London, Vienna, Berlin and Rome, and put him in touch with many rulers, statesmen and scholars all over Europe. Besides his posts at the courts of the House of Guelph, he was also appointed counsellor, and granted pensions, by Emperor Charles VI, Tsar Peter I, and Elector (later King) Frederick of Brandenburg-Prussia. Other rulers also and the Pope would have liked to win him for their services. Various very attractive propositions, however, foundered on Leibniz’ refusal to become a Catholic since he feared that in this case his freedom of thought might be restricted. As an official he was not burdened with routine work, but could devote himself to the great questions of international policy, to planning important reforms, and to studies on the genealogy of the ruling dynasty and on the history of the country. This position naturally aroused the jealousy of the bureaucrats. Leibniz’ fame, however, reposed mainly on his work as a philosopher and a scholar in many fields. The range of his scientific achievements was amazing. His main interest, however, was not merely the enlargement of knowledge but its practical utilization in order to increase human happiness. But the position of the philosopher as an official, and the abundance of his ideas, were not favourable to the publication of comprehensive presentations 114of his thought. Its fruits were largely scattered in secret memoranda, anonymous pamphlets and official manifestos, and in a vast correspondence. Two only of his writings became widely known in his lifetime, his most important philosophical work appeared fifty years after his death, and his greatest historical book had to wait a hundred and thirty years for publication.