This chapter introduces the predicament of the rise of religious fundamentalism in a global scale mainly in the postcolonial Global South and the impact that this phenomenon has on the international geopolitical scene. It highlights the traditional misconceptions regarding the nature of religious fundamentalism and the reasons that cause it’s emergence that are still prevalent in the contemporary world. It argues that these misconceptions are mainly products of Eurocentric theories that are no longer equipped to provide a solid analysis of the contemporary globalized world. In contrast to the prediction of the ‘End of History’ and the consolidation of neoliberalism and democracy in the world, religious geopolitics have reentered dynamically the international scene and pose a serious threat to the Westernized world order. It introduces a different theoretical and methodological approach in order to redefine globalization, modernity and religion that can provide a more accurate analysis of the phenomenon of religious fundamentalism.