This chapter sets out the main conclusions emanating from the research. It explores three inter-related themes. First, the shifting nature of historical knowledge and place of historical knowledge in the history classroom; second, the place of teacher agency in an era of prescription and third, the changing role of subject-specific professional development for history teachers. One section considers implications for policy, practice and further research into history teachers and their experiences of teaching history. It particularly class for more research with and support for older, experienced teachers. The chapter ends with a final summary of findings, that there were dramatic changes in history teaching over this period and that all teachers interviewed experienced a loss of autonomy. A minority group of the teachers interviewed, more exposed to disciplinary language of history early in their careers were more resilient to imposed policy innovations, more able to use their teacher agency to forward their own personal agenda in the history classroom.