This chapter seeks to provide a historical and global context for the teachers' memories set out in the rest of the book. It begins with an overview of the sociocultural and political background in the late twentieth century, then focusing in particular on the educational policy context, both globally and specifically in England. The inception of the National Curriculum is explained, alongside differences in later versions of the Programmes of Study. The second half of the chapter focuses specifically on the changing nature of the History National Curriculum. It provides an overview of history education throughout the twentieth century including the Schools Council History Project, the debates surrounding the History National Curriculum and considers changes in purpose and approach in teaching the subject. Finally, there is some consideration of history education for 14- to 19-year olds and the changing assessment context.