By the end of 1943, the Allies had moved on to fight the Axis powers in Italy. The 30,000 or so predominantly Turkish and North African Jews who were stranded in Europe during the war used ingenious methods to evade capture by the Nazis, and some were rescued by Turkish, Iranian, and Moroccan Muslims. Throughout the war, Jews in the Middle East and North Africa experienced bombed cities, looting, starvation, attacks and murder, deportation, and forced labor. When American Jewish aid agencies and the Jewish Agency turned their attention to the “forgotten million,” they found impoverished communities facing an uncertain political future.