In Chapter 3 an attempt was made to assess the impact of the first twenty-five years of foreign assistance, the period that led up to, but did not include, the “new directions” era. The conclusion was that during that period the developing world enjoyed a dramatic increase in economic, social, and political well-being and that foreign assistance contributed to this increase. This chapter will synthesize the limited information that exists on “new directions” initiatives and draw some comparative conclusions about their impact relative to approaches that had been tried earlier. It will include sections that address in both normative and predictive terms the future of foreign assistance.