1. The growing theoretical and empirical literature on workers’ participation and self management suggest several reasons why participation and self-management in production are conducive to socioeconomic change and economic development in developing countries. These findings can be classified into three groups. First, participation and self-management are considered fundamental to the freedom and fulfillment of humankind. It implies equality in decision-making (concerning production itself and the distribution of surplus), which promotes political freedom, and which emphasizes the individual as an active political being. Second, it has been found that some degree of workers’ participation in production is common among firms. This reflects a convergence of different socioeconomic systems and orders in the contemporary world. The third set of findings pertains solely to developing countries after liberation took place in the last few decades. Developing countries are characterized by a traditional hierarchical social structure and an economic system inherited from colonialist rulers. However, participation and self-management can be valuable tools for mobilizing people to bring about social and economic change as well as for stimulating their creative energy.