Rapid upward mobility as a result of pipeline construction did not affect people whose employment was not influenced by expansion or high turnover rates or increased income. One such group was the professional staff at the University of Alaska in Fairbanks, whose only pay raises during the pipeline period were cost of living adjustments. Their relative incomes declined in relation to people employed in other types of jobs and other educational institutions, such as community college and secondary education, in which teachers were unionized and thus able to negotiate higher wages during the pipeline period. Despite the relative loss of income from university employment, many professors had consulting jobs and more funds for research to study various aspects of resource development.