One of the predictable responses to energy price rises, and one which has characterized the 1970s and 1980s, is increased supply of indigenous fuels. In meeting the demand-supply balance, in addition to the conservation response documented in the previous chapter, five sources of additional fuel supplies can be examined: coal, oil, nuclear electricity, natural gas and ‘alternatives’ (i.e. solar, wind, wave, geothermal and biomass sources). Each raises important economic and political issues of its own and these are the focus of attention in this chapter.