Establishing the theoretical core of the manuscript, chapter two develops the concept of heterogenous international order as one that relies on several ideologies of order that constitute relevant actors and that legitimize their pursuit of various goals and patterns of behavior. This chapter identifies five specific ideologies of international order deeply implicated in the management of disasters: modernism, economic liberalism, realism, nation-statism, and humanitarianism. The chapter explores these five ideologies of order, how disasters expose their ambiguities and contradictions, as well as how political actors understand and frame disasters and disaster management through these ideologies.