Circular economy and sustainability have the same vision of a society which balances economic, environmental and social needs, based on a caring attitude. The circular economy has a focus on labour – work – because labour is a renewable resource, and the only resource with a qualitative edge, which deteriorates rapidly if unused.

Economy and ecology meet in the activities of the circular industrial economy because waste prevention is also a prevention of economic and resource losses. Wealth in the circular economy is measured as the sum of the quality and quantity of all stocks. Growth is an increase in the sum of the quality and quantity of all stocks, not an increased flow.

By extending the service life of goods through reuse, repair, remanufacture and technological and fashion upgrading, the circular economy substitutes labour-intensive service activities for energy and material intensive manufacturing activities.