The institutional and doctrinal influences which could have shaped the condemnation, and their significance for understanding its context and role in the development of the university and its theology faculty, form the crux of the book. The starting point for both is the statement of faith from Lateran IV, 1215. Chapter 3 explores the wider external historical context – for example, the dispute between the pope and the emperor. Discussion of institutional developments includes the developing role of Paris theologians; the impact of Franciscans and Dominicans on the university’s theology faculty; and the influence and role of Pope Gregory IX. Doctrinal influences considered include the Latin tradition, for example Eriugena’s doctrines and thirteenth-century reception, Amaury of Bène and Gilbert of Poitiers. The chapter examines the impact of philosophy, including Aristotle, Neoplatonism and the Liber de causis, Avicenna, the Liber de causis primis et secundis, Averroes and Maimonides. It argues that too sharp distinctions between the Latin tradition and the impact of philosophy, or within these categories, are risky and must be avoided. Finally, the chapter looks at ‘threats’ from outside the Latin Church, including the Greek Church, heretics (whatever their organisation and beliefs really were) and Jews.