The eco-establishment is the big kid on the environmental block, and to the extent that environmentalists will be participants in setting the environmental agenda for the closing years of the twentieth century, it will be the eco-establishment that has the biggest say. But these groups do not have the environmental stage all to themselves. Community-based grassroots environmental groups, ecofeminists, and deep ecologists are all important, and in some cases becoming more important, players on the environmental scene. In the US alone, there are hundreds of small groups that represent grassroots environmentalism; worldwide, there are literally thousands. We’ll meet the grassroots activists in the next chapter; here, I want to take a look at the two ideological movements, ecofeminism and deep ecology, that represent the sharpest challenge to mainstream environmentalism.