The aforementioned jurisdictional fragmentation in Catalonia was the result of its origins in the Early Medieval Ages (with various counties arising from the Carolingian period and the advance into the frontier area), the evolution in the High Middle Ages (the consolidation of feudal lordships and the emerging urban nuclei) and finally the weakness of the Crown in the Late Middle Ages (with the necessary cession of patrimony by the sovereign even if only as loans). Together these consolidated a hard fragmentation of revenues and jurisdictions. As we have seen, the sanctioning of the impassability between jurisdictional domains in 1283 1 established a system of fragmented jurisdictions that did not collaborate with each other and that found the highest indicator of their power in the capacity to apply the death penalty, a state that came to characterise the country, as it lasted down to the end of the Old Regime into the nineteenth century. 2