The death penalty took over the European Late Middle Ages. In the previous centuries, major crimes like murder, political rebellion or magnicide tended to be punished with fines and exile. From the twelfth century, with the backing of Roman law, the death penalty was incorporated into legal codes and, especially, into the political attitude and social acceptance. The great wealth of documentary sources in Catalonia has enabled us to delve into this evolution and thus appreciate the death penalty as a transversal axis with which to follow the experiences of the men and women of those times.