The internationalist paradigm that would dominate thinking about world affairs in the early part of the twentieth century had its origins, within the context of British liberalism, in the peace movement of the nineteenth century. More revolutionary was another alternative to convention, represented by Karl Marx, who opposed the entire system. Both declined to accept the state’s judgement about the legitimacy of the military option and particularly the people’s role in war. Many dissenters joined the Internationals as an expression of their concern and desire for change.