Chapter 12 provides a conclusion to the book. It is divided into two sections. The first reflects on the theoretical framework of the book. It explores its potential and main areas of future research, as well as its main limitations. It argues that neoclassical realism (particularly in its ‘less positivist’ declinations) is an extremely flexible theoretical approach that offers a good starting point for researchers interested in the interaction of different levels of analysis. The second section contains some final remarks on the foreign policy and alliances of Syria. It focuses specifically on the relationship between alliances politics and the civil war that has engulfed the country in the last seven years.