ABSTRACT

The customs records would probably show, if they were more complete, that Edward IV was engaged in the exportation of wool, and perhaps of other English products as well, from the very beginning of his reign. Even as they are, they prove that at least by the spring of 1463 he was a full-fledged wool merchant. Two galleys leaving London for Italy on 20th May of that year were loaded almost exclusively with wool belonging to the king which had been shipped for him by three factors or attorneys, Henry de Monte, “merchant of Liguria,” James de Sanderico, “merchant,” and John Godfrey, “alien.” The first of these galleys, of which one Francesco Bambow was “patron,” carried 22 sacks and 13 doves 1 of wool for Hugh Wyche, the London alderman who was made a Knight of the Bath at the time of Elizabeth Woodville’s coronation, but otherwise the entire cargo belonged to Edward — 9 1 2 https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-u.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9780429057717/21b96e74-ac16-46d0-b2ac-236c488ac114/content/eq1.tif"/> sacks of wool which had been shipped by Henry de Monte, 84 sacks and 2 cloves which had been shipped by James de Sanderico, and 119 sacks and 15 cloves which had been shipped by John Godfrey; while in the second galley, which was probably a much smaller vessel and of which Marco Dalege, or de Loge, was patron, there were 24 1 2 https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-u.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9780429057717/21b96e74-ac16-46d0-b2ac-236c488ac114/content/eq2.tif"/> sacks and 10 cloves of wool which Godfrey had shipped for the king. A ship called the Christopher of Flushing, departing from London four days after these two galleys, also carried 14 1 2 https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-u.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9780429057717/21b96e74-ac16-46d0-b2ac-236c488ac114/content/eq3.tif"/> sacks and 8 cloves of wool which was Edward’s property and which likewise had been shipped by Godfrey. But in this last instance the king’s wool was to be transferred at Sandwich to a galley of which one Thomasyn was master and which probably joined the galleys of Bambow and Dalege before the voyage through the Straits of Marrok began. In fact, there must have been a 405considerable amount of unloading and reloading before the fleet of galleys was ready to start for Italy; for when, four days later still, on 28th May, the James of London cleared for Calais, she carried another small consignment, 9 1 2 https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-u.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9780429057717/21b96e74-ac16-46d0-b2ac-236c488ac114/content/eq4.tif"/> sacks, of the king’s wool which Henry de Monte had shipped and which, as it too was destined for Italy, must have been reshipped on arriving at Calais. Perhaps these few sacks came from one of the king’s estates in the distant Welsh marches and, having reached London a little late, were sent on to Calais in the hope that they would overtake the galleys there. But the James took to Calais other wool belonging to the king besides the 9 1 2 https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-u.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9780429057717/21b96e74-ac16-46d0-b2ac-236c488ac114/content/eq5.tif"/> sacks going to Italy. On its deck were also 84 sacks and 2 cloves which Sanderico was shipping for the king “versus partes exteras” and 158 1 2 https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-u.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9780429057717/21b96e74-ac16-46d0-b2ac-236c488ac114/content/eq6.tif"/> sacks and 7 cloves which Godfrey was shipping for him to the same vague destination. Indeed, the James carried a very large cargo, as, in addition to the king’s shipments, she had on board nearly 170, 000 pells and over 300 sacks of wool which belonged to the merchants of the staple, to say nothing of 748 dressed hides belonging to the Earl of Kent and 22 sacks and 13 cloves of wool belonging to Hugh Wyche. 1