From the eleventh century new influences from abroad began to be felt, or perhaps it would be nearer the mark to say that Hindu India began to experience the first of a series of shocks which, nine centuries later, would result in the creation of Pakistan. In the seventh century the Prophet Muhammad released one of the most potent forces in the world. The power of Islam grew so rapidly that within little more than a hundred years his successors were ruling ‘an empire which extended from the Atlantic to the Indus, and from the Caspian to the cataracts of the Nile and included Spain and Portugal besides many other territories’.