WE are indebted for a very useful interpretation of the way in which character is built up from the raw material of instinct to the studies of two English psychologists, McDougall 1 and Shand. 2 Apart from the work of Freud and Jung on the unconscious mind, no thinkers have approached this problem in a more suggestive manner. They seem to take us, perhaps, as far towards a satisfactory theory of character-formation as it is possible to go upon a direct study of conscious experience and behaviour, without reference to the unconscious material and the mechanisms which are revealed by the psychoanalytic method. We shall discuss the latter briefly in our next chapter, and for the present may confine ourselves to the point of view associated with the names of McDougall and Shand. 3