The widespread European imperial presence in the Islamic world did not produce Muslim stagnation. Although few areas were not dominated by the Western powers at the time of World War I, the dynamism visible in Islam throughout the nineteenth century continued in the twentieth. The era from World War I until the middle of the 1960s was a time of significant and dramatic changes within the Islamic world, in both political and ideological terms. Many independent states emerged during the period, and a variety of ideological developments occurred. Those events were accompanied by militant revolutions and gradual evolutionary changes that transformed the face of the Islamic world.