By 1968 the post–war world was inured to peacetime violence and accustomed to the cynicism of the super-powers. Yet the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia and the kidnapping of its leaders produced an incredible outburst of international anger. Even the invading forces were affected and were confused or ashamed at the taunt of Nazi that greeted their comradely action. Outraged feelings did not lead to Western intervention, or shame to a Soviet withdrawal. But the emotional reaction to brutality and banditry and to the disturbing parallel with the betrayal and occupation of thirty years before was not less sincere and intense. Less than a decade later, the historian on either side of the divide is still hampered by recollections of the time. The burden of subjectivity is harder than usual to shift; and the problem of reaching conclusions with incomplete evidence and short-term perspective is made no easier. Yet there are some questions that must be asked and some conclusions that can be drawn.