In Chapter 1, we briefly defined "strategic management" as the set of top management interventions which influence the design and orchestration of the strategy, organisational structure and processes of a program in relation to its environment. The analytical framework we shall develop in this chapter is based on the well known thesis that the performance of an organisation depends on the joint influence of these four interacting variables, namely, the organisation's environment, its strategy, structure, and processes. In the public context, strategic management may be defined as the ongoing process by which those who manage development programs continually appraise and influence these variables and maximise their positive interaction effects or "synergy" in order to achieve the desired program outcomes.