ABSTRACT

Commune and brigade enterprises are newly emerging things that have developed quickly since 1970. In 1974, 80% of the communes and 60% of the brigades in the country had their own enterprises employing about 10 million people, with an output of about 15 billion yuan. In 1977, 93.6% of the communes and 76.6% of the brigades had established enterprises. These enterprises employed 23 million people, representing 7.7% of the rural labor force, and produced an output worth 39 billion yuan, amounting to about 50 yuan per capita agricultural population of the country. Development is very uneven over the country, with suburban areas enjoying the fastest growth. The average per capita agricultural population output from commune and brigade enterprises in the suburban counties of Shanghai reached 304 yuan. The equivalent figures were 180 yuan in the suburbs of Tianjin, 143 yuan in the suburbs of Beijing, and 103 yuan in Jiangsu province. In Wuxi county, which has the highest average per capita agricultural population output from commune and brigade enterprises in the whole country, the figure reached 383 yuan. In ten provinces and autonomous regions, namely, Guangxi, Shaanxi, Qinghai, Gansu, Yunnan, Xinjiang, Sichuan, Anhui, Guizhou, and Xizang, the per capita figure does not even reach 20 yuan. Commune and brigade enterprises developed very fast. In 1977, the national output from state industry and agriculture was 12.6% higher than that of 1976. But commune and brigade enterprises grew by 44.7%.