In the early 1960s a great deal of “scare” literature was produced on Latin America. The titles and subtitles of many of the books and articles written during the period help bear this contention out: “The Eleventh Hour,” “Reform or Revolution,” “Evolution or Chaos.” Stemming principally from the Cuban revolution, the concern of scholars and public officials alike was that Latin America was about to explode in violent upheaval, that unless democratic reformism was quickly forthcoming, the Latin American nations would soon be the victims of “Castro-Communist” takeovers. The “one-minute-to-midnight” mentality shaped not only a great deal of official thinking and policy with regard to Latin America during the 1960s but also infused the large body of development literature dealing with the area.