Communist insurgency movements in various parts of the globe have passed through variable periods of ascent and decline. Their expansion or contraction has remained contingent upon a propitious regional and international climate, access to arms and funds, an ability to mobilize combatants and organize a reliable support base, the vulnerability of incumbent governments, and the effectiveness of army counter-insurgency operations. Peasant populations and indigenous societies in various parts of the Third World have been entangled in the political struggle and military crossfire between guerrillas and governments forces. Rural warfare has often aggravated their material insecurity and exposed them to harassment, repression, and destruction. Marxist-Leninist insurgents have sought to capitalize on agrarian poverty, dislocation, and discontent to fuel their drive for power. Their protracted "people's war" also provides an opportunity to construct an intricate network of social controls and develop channels of political manipulation to prepare the foundations of a socialist transformation. The three country studies in this section demonstrate the application of Communist guerrilla strategies in specific national settings as well as the response of rural populations and government agencies to prolonged periods of insurgency.