The urban paradigm is relatively new and owes much to the consumption-oriented Western European model of living. The aspirations it fosters are more materialistic; evaluation of others' status tends to be made in terms of their apparent material achievements and the self is also presented in that light. Relations with others in terms of this paradigm places the focus on the mutual advantage of transactions, which is different from the traditional approach where transactions are expressions of ongoing social relationships. The attitudes to labour are focussed on the income derived from it; labour merely regarded as a means towards a material goal, not, as in the traditional paradigm a source of prestige in itself, or, as in the socialist interpretation a means towards some collectively defined goal.