In South Africa, two USAID-funded projects, AIDSCOM (AIDS Communication) and AIDSCAP (AIDS Control and Prevention) collaborated as a joint program between 1991 and 1993. The USAID program in South Africa operates under antiapartheid legislation from the U.S. Congress, which means that assistance must be through nongovernmental channels, specifically through "progressive," antiapartheid organizations. The joint program's experience in AIDS prevention during the first year convinced AIDSCOM/AIDSCAP of the importance of traditional healers in HIV/AIDS and STD control in South Africa. I was asked to assist in designing a pilot project for traditional healers, conducting baseline/ formative research, facilitating a preliminary workshop for healers, and evaluating the overall effort.