In this chapter we are not concerned with the current state of the law regarding the life sciences advances, but rather with the conceptual and evaluative problems that bioscience presents to lawmakers. No pretense is made to an exhaustive treatment of a subject upon which books could, and have, been written. The purpose here is to help persons who are neither lawyers nor legislators to appreciate the way in which bioscience and biotechnology change the assumptions on which modern political and legal systems have been established. Ethical questions pertinent to law and justice are raised and will be considered further in the following chapter.