The period referred to in Chapter 2 as the second phase of U.S. neutrality, lasting from June 1940 to the year's end, was a time of great conceptual innovation and lively political activity. While both the public and Congress continued to reject the possibility of war, the Gallup polls carried out in the course of those months revealed just how much the views of most Americans had changed on a broad range of foreignpolicy issues and likewise their assessments of the international situation in general. 1