The fate of twentieth-century Colombian electrification was decided during the 1950s. In a first round of clashes, the Colombian government was able to turn failures at Caldas, Anchicayá, and Lebrija into victories, thanks to timely support from the Harry S. Truman administration. From there on everything was downhill, whether in Bogotá, the site of the largest utility in the country, or in Cali, one of the largest cities in Colombia.