The islanders of Caye Caulker have access to some of the best fishing grounds in the Caribbean, particularly for lobster. They have exploited these resources in ways that are compatible with their particular social forms. At the same time they have developed strategies that have significantly improved their economic situation. A major strategy was the formation of the very successful Northern Fishermen Cooperative Society, Ltd. The aim of this chapter 1 is to describe these economic and social developments from the first settlement to the formation of the co-op.