The conversation that is more vital for Christians today than that between the liberals and the virtue theorists is the one going on among Jewish scholars who are seeking to reclaim the theological and political significance of election for Jewish life. David Novak and Michael Wyschogrod in particular have made persuasive cases for a retrieval of a biblical-rabbinic doctrine of election as the determinative description of Israel's identity. In so doing, they present a challenge to the modern liberal inversion of election in which God's choice of Israel has been replaced by the more palatable belief in Israel's choice of God. 1