The implementation of the S&T Agreement involved a relatively elaborate structure of centralized coordination and administration. A Joint Commission was established to serve as a high-level oversight body for projects and activities to be carried out under the Agreement. The Agreement also provided for executive agents, executive secretariats, implementing agencies, joint working groups, and joint project-level groups that were to function in a top-down administration of specific research projects and individual and group exchanges. This chapter examines the organizational arrangements utilized in implementing the S&T Agreement and the effect of political and other external considerations on the conduct of the exchange.