The U.S.-U.S.S.R. Joint Study Group on Earth Sciences was established by the Joint Commission in February 1979. The study group was charged with exploring the possibilities for cooperation in this area and identifying specific topics in which cooperation might be mutually beneficial. A U.S. study group chairman was appointed the following May, and by August 1979, the United States had been informed of the selection of a chairman on the Soviet side. Six additional members to comprise the U.S. side of the study group were subsequently chosen, and one U.S. side meeting was held in February 1980 to discuss specific areas for possible cooperation. However, as a result of U.S. government restrictions following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the development of new projects under the S&T Agreement was precluded. Consequently, a formal program of cooperation in the field of earth sciences was never fully developed or implemented. The U.S. chairman and study group members of the earth sciences group are listed in Table 12.1.