This chapter describes the events that led to the decision of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in December 1979 to pursue a dual-track approach to nuclear force modernization. NATO’s decision to deploy 464 cruise missiles and 108 Pershing IIs in Europe while engaging in arms control negotiations with the Soviets was a landmark in the history of NATO’s approach to nuclear war. This case is another example of a small multilateral negotiation, whose focus was on security issues. It illustrates the special problems involved in multilateral negotiations within military alliances, especially when the goals of individual countries conflict with those of the alliance. The impact of domestic politics on major foreign policy decisions and on the process of negotiation is also highlighted in this study. It demonstrates that during multilateral negotiations, the relative importance and influence of particular actors can change.