A substantial portion of the difficulties in PUSH/Excel arose from the type of leadership exerted by Jackson, both from the nature of charismatic leadership in general and from Jackson's charisma in particular. It is often difficult to effect widespread social change through charismatic leadership because charisma is specific to one group of people and normally does not extend far beyond that group. The great charismatic leaders—Gandhi, Hitler, Roosevelt—were exceptional not in that they were charismatic leaders but in that their charisma extended to whole nations. Of course, even these men had opponents who were numerous and vehement. How does charismatic leadership work in the case of Jesse Jackson?