Chapter 1: The autobiographical sense of self presents knowledge and understanding of the concept of “self” from two different perspectives: research on the biological, intellectual and emotional processes within the first five years of childhood, and daily practice between the child as a developing person and the professional as secondary attachment figure. It has been well established that secure attachment between a child and familiar adult activates the processes associated with learning, and ultimately development. The chapter discusses the five stages of a sense of self in a context of theory illustrated by examples from the child’s earliest years. A key issue is the impact of an immature sense of self upon childhood learning and the accumulative negative effect upon achievement in adulthood.